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The art of seeing: Visual perception in design and evaluation of non-photorealistic rendering.


Visual displays such as art and illustration benefit from concise presentation of information. We present several approaches for simplifying photographs to create such concise, artistically abstracted images. The difficulty of abstraction lies in selecting what is important. These approaches apply models of human vision, models of image structure, and new methods of interaction to select important content. Important locations are identified from eye movement recordings. Using a perceptual model, features are then preserved where the viewer looked, and removed elsewhere. Several visual styles using this method are presented. The perceptual motivation for these techniques makes predictions about how they should effect viewers. In this context, we validate our approach using experiments that measure eye movements over these images. Results also provide some interesting insights into artistic abstraction and human visual perception.