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Estrous cycle detection, pregnancy diagnosis, circulating levels of vitamins A and E and the role of different nutrients in reproductive performance in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) of Nepal.


Elephants have been maintained in captivity (camps) in Asia for at least 200 years. Effective management of the captive population could insure survival of the species, could reinforce wild populations and could provide stock for reestablishing elephants in depopulated areas. However, efforts to breed the endangered Asian elephant in captivity have historically been inefficient because of our limited understanding of their cyclicity, pregnancy state, nutrition levels and stress related to captive management.