This study was undertaken to evaluate the overtreatment rate of women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy followed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), the so-called " see and treat" approach. Overtreatment was defined as LEEP specimens containing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or less. In this study, medical records of 192 women with abnormal Pap smears undergoing the " see and treat" approach in Chiang Mai University Hospital between October 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed. The preceding Pap smears were as follows: 124 (64.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); 35 (18.2%) with atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H); 20 (10.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 9 (4.7%) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA); and 4 (2.1%) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). Histologic results obtained from loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) were as follows: CIN 2-3, 106 (55.2%); invasive cancer, 41 (21.4%); CIN 1, 15 (7.8%); adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 1 (0.5%); and no lesion, 29 (15.1%). Overall, 22.9% of LEEP specimens contained CIN 1 or less. Significant predictors for overtreatment were type of preceding smears and colposcopic impression. If the " see and treat" approach was strictly carried out in women who had either smears or colposcopic findings revealing high-grade disease, the overtreatment rate was only 7%. Hemorrhagic complication was 6.2% and all could be treated at an outpatient department. In conclusion, the overtreatment rate of the " see and treat" approach in women with various degree of abnormal Pap smears is 23% which would be diminished to the acceptable rate of lower that 10% if strictly performed in those with either smears or colposcopic impressions revealing high-grade abnormality. Peri-operative LEEP complications were mild and acceptable.
This article investigates cross-cultural encounters from the point of view of a local man who tries to gain the upper hand in power negotiations in the context of tourism. Through titillating narratives, he constructs 'white women' as 'loose', a stereotype which remains prevalent in Thai male perceptions of Western women in the twenty-first century. The article looks at selected semi-fiction from the 1972 collection Kai-phi Bangkok chut 1 (Bangkok Unlicensed Guide Collection 1) by Ta Tha-it in its capacity as a representative of the 'lowbrow' genre of 'male writing for male reading'. Exploring the narratives of sexual encounters between a local tour guide and Western women, it examines the sexualization of the farang (Western) body as a strategy for 'fun, games and gains' in cross-cultural sexual encounters. In the three stories discussed, the sexualized farang bodies turn out to be homosexual, masochistic and aged respectively, while the Thai body is hetero-normative, young and virile. The entire collection from which this analysis is drawn was composed in the 1970s against the backdrop of Cold War Thailand as an emerging tourist destination for US soldiers in Indochina and of the rise of international tourism in Thailand.
(-)-7-O-Acetylgoniodiol (1B) together with goniothalamin (2) and pinocembrin (3), have been isolated from leaves and twigs of Goniothalamus griffithii. All compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses and comparison with published data. 1B can be formed by recrystallization from EtOH/acetone and its stereochemistry was further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Goniothalamin exhibited most potent cytotoxicity against P-388, KB, Col-2, MCF-7, Lu-1, A549, T24, ASK, HEK-293 and cells with ED50 values of 0.19, 0.56, 0.36, 0.56, 0.54, 0.67, 0.39, 0.67 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, 1B was also showed high selective inhibitory effect on the P-388, KB and HEK-293 with ED50 values of 3.31, 3.26 and 1.89 μg/mL.
In the title compound, C17H16O7, which was isolated from the leaves of Micromelum integerrimum, the furan ring adopts an envelope conformation with the O atom as the flap. An intramolecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. The carbonyl O atom is disordered in a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a C(10) chain along .
In this paper, the balanced scorecard has been applied to create an ideal national energy framework, which is useful for the specific overall strategic theme, objective, sub-objective and the owner of each objective. The result obtained from a case study shows that it can be used to facilitate the measurement of alternative energy development plan (AEDP 2012-2021) in Thailand and the ideal national energy framework, which can also be applied for the national energy framework creation and presented the overall strategic theme, objective, sub-objective and the owner of each objective under the strategic theme in objective measurement target initiative (OMTI) form. This method can help strategic planners for assigned measurement guideline under each strategic objective to the right owner. Originally, the company in lower chain will receive the policy from the top level organization such as ministry, regulator or country governor. Then, this policy can be used to set own vision, goal and their key performance indicator (KPI), where the problem from information can transfer from low level to top level, which can support the decision maker.