Background: Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a serious problem worldwide. We sought to record the acquisition of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in healthy infants in Northern Thailand and investigated potential determinants. Methods: Stool samples from 142 infants after birth, at ages 2wk, 2mo, 4 to 6mo, and 1y, and parent stool samples were screened for E. coli resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and cefazoline by culture, and isolates were further investigated for multiresistance by disc diffusion method. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to identify persistent and transmitted strains. Genetic comparison of resistant and transmitted strains was done by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and strains were further investigated for extra- and intra-intestinal virulence factors by multiplex PCR. Results: Forty-seven (33%) neonatal meconium samples contained resistant E. coli. Prevalence increased continuously: After 1y, resistance proportion (tetracycline 80%, ampicillin 72%, co-trimoxazole 66%, cefazoline 35%) almost matched those in parents. In 8 infants (6%), identical E. coli strains were found in at least 3 sampling time points (suggesting persistence). Transmission of resistant E. coli from parents to child was observed in only 8 families. MLST showed high diversity. We could not identify any virulence genes or factors associated with persistence, or transmission of resistant E. coli. Full-term, vaginal birth and birth in rural hospital were identified as risk factors for early childhood colonization with resistant E. coli. Conclusion: One third of healthy Thai neonates harboured antibiotic-resistant E. coli in meconium. The proportion of resistant E. coli increased during the first year of life almost reaching the value in adults. We hypothesize that enhancement of infection control measures and cautious use of antibiotics may help to control further increase of resistance.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the overtreatment rate of women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy followed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), the so-called " see and treat" approach. Overtreatment was defined as LEEP specimens containing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or less. In this study, medical records of 192 women with abnormal Pap smears undergoing the " see and treat" approach in Chiang Mai University Hospital between October 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed. The preceding Pap smears were as follows: 124 (64.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); 35 (18.2%) with atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H); 20 (10.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 9 (4.7%) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA); and 4 (2.1%) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). Histologic results obtained from loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) were as follows: CIN 2-3, 106 (55.2%); invasive cancer, 41 (21.4%); CIN 1, 15 (7.8%); adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 1 (0.5%); and no lesion, 29 (15.1%). Overall, 22.9% of LEEP specimens contained CIN 1 or less. Significant predictors for overtreatment were type of preceding smears and colposcopic impression. If the " see and treat" approach was strictly carried out in women who had either smears or colposcopic findings revealing high-grade disease, the overtreatment rate was only 7%. Hemorrhagic complication was 6.2% and all could be treated at an outpatient department. In conclusion, the overtreatment rate of the " see and treat" approach in women with various degree of abnormal Pap smears is 23% which would be diminished to the acceptable rate of lower that 10% if strictly performed in those with either smears or colposcopic impressions revealing high-grade abnormality. Peri-operative LEEP complications were mild and acceptable.
This article investigates cross-cultural encounters from the point of view of a local man who tries to gain the upper hand in power negotiations in the context of tourism. Through titillating narratives, he constructs 'white women' as 'loose', a stereotype which remains prevalent in Thai male perceptions of Western women in the twenty-first century. The article looks at selected semi-fiction from the 1972 collection Kai-phi Bangkok chut 1 (Bangkok Unlicensed Guide Collection 1) by Ta Tha-it in its capacity as a representative of the 'lowbrow' genre of 'male writing for male reading'. Exploring the narratives of sexual encounters between a local tour guide and Western women, it examines the sexualization of the farang (Western) body as a strategy for 'fun, games and gains' in cross-cultural sexual encounters. In the three stories discussed, the sexualized farang bodies turn out to be homosexual, masochistic and aged respectively, while the Thai body is hetero-normative, young and virile. The entire collection from which this analysis is drawn was composed in the 1970s against the backdrop of Cold War Thailand as an emerging tourist destination for US soldiers in Indochina and of the rise of international tourism in Thailand.
(-)-7-O-Acetylgoniodiol (1B) together with goniothalamin (2) and pinocembrin (3), have been isolated from leaves and twigs of Goniothalamus griffithii. All compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses and comparison with published data. 1B can be formed by recrystallization from EtOH/acetone and its stereochemistry was further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Goniothalamin exhibited most potent cytotoxicity against P-388, KB, Col-2, MCF-7, Lu-1, A549, T24, ASK, HEK-293 and cells with ED50values of 0.19, 0.56, 0.36, 0.56, 0.54, 0.67, 0.39, 0.67 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, 1B was also showed high selective inhibitory effect on the P-388, KB and HEK-293 with ED50values of 3.31, 3.26 and 1.89 μg/mL.
In the title compound, C17H16O7, which was isolated from the leaves of Micromelum integerrimum, the furan ring adopts an envelope conformation with the O atom as the flap. An intramolecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. The carbonyl O atom is disordered in a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a C(10) chain along .