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Epizootiologic evaluation of feline and canine urolithiasis.


A case-control study was conducted over a 2 1/3 year period to evaluate dietary and environmental factors as potential risk factors for feline and canine uroliths. Cases consisted of cats and dogs with uroliths submitted to Minnesota Urolith Center. Uroliths were quantitatively analyzed by optical crystallography, and when necessary, by infrared spectroscopy. Only uroliths composed of at least 70% of one mineral type were included in the study. Animals with history of receiving special diets to manage urinary tract disease were excluded. Controls were selected from cat and dog populations without uroliths admitted to the same veterinary clinic or hospital as the urolith-forming animals. Controls were examined just prior to or immediately following the urolith-forming animals. Animals with a history of urinary tract disease, and those with a history of receiving special diets for urinary tract disease were excluded. Age, gender, breed, diet, dietary components, feeding methods, water source, medications, and environmental data (other animals in the same household, rural or city environment, time outdoors) were collected using a standard questionnaire mailed to the animals' owners. Crude, adjusted odds ratios, and multivariate analysis were calculated for all factors to assess the association of potential risk factors with urolith formation.